Thursday, 31 August 2017


P.O.S ~ 
Point of Sale terminal is a combination of software and hardware that allows retail location to process card payment. It reads the information of a customer’s Credit and debit card; check whether the funds are sufficient in a customer’s bank account. It also transfers the funds from the customer’s account to the seller’s account, records the transaction and after the transaction is approved the terminal prints receipt for the customer.

ATM: - 
ATM stands for Automated Teller Machine. This computerizes machine permits customer to access their bank account with a magnetically encoded plastic card and a code number. It allows withdrawing money and making deposits, paying bills, obtaining bank statements, check account balance and transfer money.

1. The full form of P.O.S. is Point of sale.
1. Where the full form of ATM is Automated teller Machine.
2. P.O.S. is basically used at grocery or retail stores.
2. Where an ATM. is used at public places for the ease of banking service to people.
3. P.O.S. is used to give support to business for cash transaction.
3. Where an ATM. is used to give support to banking services. That’s why it is also called self-service banking machine.
4. P.O.S. is only used to transfer cash digitally from account to account.
4. Where an ATM. is used to transfer as well as withdrawal of cash.
5. A P.O.S. is run by a P.O.S. terminal, a server and a P.O.S. retail software.
5. Where an ATM. connects to a host computer through a network.
6. There is no restriction or no extra charge to use a P.O.S. at any number of time for a particular bank account in a given time.
6. Where there is a restriction or carrying extra charge to use a particular ATM. to use many numbers of time for a particular bank account to withdraw money in a given time.

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 31st August 2017

1.'Women Entrepreneurs Hub' will be setup in Guwahati which will showcase the products made exclusively by women

2.Governor of Assam Banwarilal Purohit alongwith with Keshab Mahanta (Minister of Science and Technology) inaugurated a 30 kilowatt(kw) Grid Interactive Solar power Plant under the Renewable Energy Project at Raj Bhawan . The project was sanctioned to Assam Energy Development Agency (AEDA) by the 'Ministry of New and Renewable Energy'

3.India will be signing Mou with Myanmar for conservation of earthquake damaged 'Pagodas' at Bagan, Myanmar.

4. India will launching IRNSS-1H to augment the existing seven satellites of  the NavIC constellation on PSLV C-39 . IRNSS-1H will be a backup to IRNSS-1A.

5.India ranked 7th in positive influence on global affairs rankings conducted by IPOS MORI

6.Karnataka Government has launched Unified health scheme  named ' Arogya Bhagya' which will be incorporating the existing seven schemes

7.Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated 1.4 km long hanging bridge across river Chambal in Kota, Rajasthan

8.Tata Group's Indian Hotels Company Taj Hotels and Palaces has appointed Puneet Chatwal as it Managing Director and CEO

9.Home Minister Rajnath Singh has Inaugurated the 'YUVA' a skill development programme and initiative by Delhi Police under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

10.Indian Police Contingent has won 321 Medals during the World Police and Fire Games in Los Angeles, California

11.Tyre Major Bridgestone has announced ace badminton player PV Sindhu as its first Brand Ambassador

12.Bangladesh registered its first ever test match win against Australia in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shakib Al Hasan was the Man of the Match

13.Cabinet has given its nod to increase the cess on luxury cars from the current 15 percent to 25 Percent

Wednesday, 30 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 30th August 2017

1. Toklai Tea Research Institute, Jorhat  which is one of the oldest Tea Research Institute of the world has start its overseas consultancy services in tea and other beverages

2.Supreme Court Judge Justice Ranjan Gogoi has been nominated as the executive chairman Indian Legal Service Authority.

3. India has entered into a pact with Germany to improve parameters for Grid Integration of Renewable Engines.

4. J.Thulasidharan has been elected as the President of Indian Cotton Federation 2017-2018

5.First edition of Rural Games or Grameen Khel Mahotsav has been started in New Delhi

6. Twitter has launched digital education programme for media agency professionals in Asia Pacific Region

7.29th August celebrated as the 'National Sports Day' on the birth Anniversary of the Legendary hockey player Major Dhyan Chand .

Tuesday, 29 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 29th August 2017

1.Assamese Writer Monalisa Saikia has been awarded Dainik Assam Literary Award for her Novel "Shankhaninad"

2.Mohammad Mustafa has assumed as the office Chairman and Managing Director of Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)

3.General Li Zuocheng appointed as the New chief of Chinese Military .

4.DRDO signed agreement with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) for producing advanced medium range surface to air Missile.

5.Dipak Misra was sworn in as 45th Chief Justice of India by President Ram Nath Kovind

6.Dhruv  Garg an Indian origin boy in Britain has got possible score of 162 on a Mensa IQ test

7.India has won South Asian Football Federation (SAFF) under 15 Championship title by defeating Nepal

8.Lewis Hamilton won Belgian Grand Prix title title 2017

9.Dara Khosrowshahi appointed as the CEO of UBER

10.PV Sindhu become 2nd Indian player to win a silver medal at World Championship in Glasgow (Scotland)

  1. Gold- Nozomi Okuhuara(Japan)
  2. Silver -PV Sindhu(India)
  3. Bronze- Saina Nehwal

Monday, 28 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 28h August 2017

1.Astrologer Khargeswar Goswami wasawarded 'Jyotish Ratna Award ' by Northeast Vedic Astrological Conference .

2.IIT GUWAHATI organised 9th Half Marathon for promoting better social and human interaction .

3. Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal launches 'Youth Forum' in presence of noted writer Chetan Bhagat with the objective to turn Northeast as the engine for the country's growth

4.Arunachal  Pradesh agrees for setting up of a Lokayukta

5.Bombay Stock Exchange CEO Ashish Chauhan granted another 5 year term.

6. Sushma Swaraj is going to attend 2 day Indian Ocean Conference in Columbo, Srilanka . The theme of the Conference is Peace, Progress and Prosperity . Around 35 countries will participate in it 

7.Telecom Operator Vodafone has tie up with 'ITEL' to provide free talktime scheme to its new customers of the latter's feature phones

8.HDFC bank has become first bank in the country to launch DigiPOS(Point of Sale) machine that offers a  complete suite of digital payment options.

9.Microsoft  to help 50 million small and medium businesses (SMB) in India to move to a secure with Microsoft's end to end offerings with its new age capabilities .

Sunday, 27 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 27th August 2017

  1. Vocational education in the State is set for a major revamp with the Assam Higher Secondary Education Council (AHSEC) planning to introduce a number of vocational and technical courses at 10+2 level aimed at skill development and employment generation, including self employment.
  2. Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal in a brief function at the Indira Gandhi Athletic Stadium, Sarusajai here today unveiled the FIFA U-17 World Cup Winner’s Trophy. He also launched the host city logo of Guwahati for the upcoming FIFA U-17 World Cup.

Saturday, 26 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 26th August 2017

  1. The Three Year Action Agenda unveiled by the Niti Aayog on Thursday has given top priority in ironing out the transit treaties and the development of physical infrastructure between the northeastern region (NER) and neighbouring countries. The agenda mentioned to closely monitor the ongoing transport connectivity projects, including the East-West Corridor, Special Accelerated Road Development Project (SARDP-NE) and Trans Arunachal Highway.
  2. The Election Commission of India has introduced a new internet-based portal/software ‘eronet’ for facilitation of various activities relating to electoral rolls such as the inclusion, deletion, correction and transfer of names, including providing the new photo identity cards. The new software has already been introduced in different states of India. This software will be launched in Assam on August 28.
  3. Transport Minister Chandra Mohan Patowary inaugurated the three-day ‘Battery Vehicle Tech Expo’ at the Maniram Dewan Trade Centre. 
  • 28 electric vehicle companies from across the country, including one each from China and Japan are participating in the expo. 
  • The Minister also inaugurated the office of the Chairman, Assam Trade Promotion Organisation (ATPO) at the trade centre.
  • The Minister stated that the e-rickshaw would be included for funding under the Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) and the upcoming Swami Vivekananda Assam Youth Empowerment (SVAYEM) scheme of the Industries and Commerce Department, so that it can be a source of income for unemployed youths.

Friday, 25 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 25th August 2017

1.Civil Aviation Ministry has tweaked the Regional air Connectivity 'UDAN' to focus on priority areas like Northeast and Himachal Pradesh.

2.The Minister of Law and Justice has extended the term of Assistant Solicitor General of India SC Keyal of Gauhati High Court by another 3 years

3. Supreme Court declares 'Right to Privacy' as fundamental right under Article 21 where Right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of right to life and personal liberty and as a part of freedom guaranteed under part 3 of the Constitution.

4.Rajiv Bansal has been appointed as the interim Chairman and Managing  Director of Air India for 3 months by the Government of India

5. General Electric(GE) appointed Vishal Wanchoo as President and Chief Executive Officer of GE South Asia replacing Banmali Agrawala

6.RBI will issue 200 rupee denomination banknotes in the Mahatma Gandhi new series

  • About 200 note
  • Motif : Sanchi Stupa which is in Madhya Pradesh
  • Colour: Bright yellow
  • Dimensions: 66MM x 146MM
  • Bleed lines: 4( basically for visually important)
  • Circles: 2

7.Sanjivani Jadhav an Indian athlete won silver medal in women's 10,000 metres 29th World University Games

8.Tata Sons appointed Roopa Purshottam as Chief Economic and head of Policy Advocacy to drive Research . She also served as Vice President of Goldman Sachs

9. India and Nepal has signed 8 Mou in various fields including Housing grants , Prevention of illicit trafficking in Narcotic drugs, Education sector , Healthcare sector, Heritage Sector

10. Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the name of new Central Food Processing scheme as Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana ( PMKSY) for agro Marine  Processing cluster.

Thursday, 24 August 2017


Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was born on Monday September 25, 1916, (Ashwin Krishna Trayodashi, Samvat 1973) in the sacred region of Brij in the village of Nagla Chandraban in Mathura District. His full name was Deendayal Upadhyaya, but he was called Deena by the family. His mother Shrimati Rampyari was a religious-minded lady and his father, Shri Bhagwati Prasad, was Assistant Station Master at Jalesar. His great-grandfather, Pandit Hariram Upadhyaya was

a well known astrologer. An astrologer who studied his horoscope predicted that the boy would become a great scholar and thinker, a selfless worker, and a leading politician - but that he would not marry. After his birth, two years later, his mother Shrimati Rampyari gave birth to her second son, Shivdayal. He lost his father Shri Bhagwati Prasad when he was less than three years old and his mother before he was eight.

Two years after his mother, Shrimati Rampyari's death, her father Shri Chunnilal, who was bringing up her two sons to his village Gud Ki Mandhai, near Fatehpur Sikri in Agra District, as a legacy of his dead daughter, also passed away in September 1926. Deendayalji was in his tenth year at that time. He was thus bereft the love and affection of both his parents and his maternal grandfather. He started living with his maternal uncle. Deendayal's aunt was sensitive to the feelings of two brothers; she brought them up like her own children. She became a surrogate mother to the orphans. The ten year old Deendayalji became a guardian for his younger brother at that tender age; he looked after him and took care of all his needs. When he was in the ninth class and in his eighteenth year, his younger brother Shivdayal contracted smallpox. Deendayalji tried his best to save Shivdayal’s life by providing him all manner of treatment available at that time, but Shivdayal also died on Nov. 18, 1934. Deendayalji was thus left all alone in this world.

He later went to high school in Sikar. Maharaja of Sikar gave Pandit ji a gold medal, Rs. 250 for books and a monthly scholarship of Rs.10. Pandit ji passed his Intermediate exams with distinction in Pilani and left to Kanpur to pursue his B.A. and joined the Sanatan Dharma College. At the instance of his friend Shri. Balwant Mahashabde, he joined the RSS in 1937. In 1937 he received his B.A. in the first division. Pandit ji moved to Agra to pursue M.A.

Here he joined forces with Shri Nanaji Deshmukh and Shri Bhau Jugade for RSS activities. Around this time Rama Devi, a cousin of Deendayalji fell ill and she moved to Agra for treatment. She passed away. Deendayalji was very depressed and could not take the M.A. exams. His scholarships, received earlier from Maharajaj of Sikar and Shri. Birla were discontinued.

At the instance of his aunt he took a Government conducted competitive examination in dhoti and kurta with a cap on his head, while other candidates wore western suits. The candidates in fun called him "Panditji" - an appellation millions were to use with respect and love in later years. Again at this exam he topped the list of selectees. Armed with his Uncle's permission he moved to Prayag to pursue B.T. and at Prayag he continued his RSS activites. After completion of his B.T., he worked full-time for the RSS and moved to Lakhimpur District in UP as an organizer and in 1955 became the Provincial Organizer of the RSS in UP.

He established the publishing house 'Rashtra Dharma Prakashan' in Lucknow and launched the monthly magazine 'Rashtra Dharma' to propound the principles he held sacred. Later he launched the weekly 'Panchjanya' and still later the daily 'Swadesh'. In 1950, Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee, then Minister at the Center, opposed the Nehru-Liaquat pact and resigned his Cabinet post and joined the opposition to build a common front of democratic forces. Dr.Mookerjee sought Shri. Guruji's help in organizing dedicated young men to pursue the work at the political level.

Pandit Deendayalji convened on September 21, 1951 a political convention of UP and founded the state unit of the new party, Bharatiya Jana Sangh. Pandit Deendayalji was the moving spirit and Dr. Mookerjee presided over the first all-India convention held on October 21, 1951.

Pandit Deendayalji's organizing skills were unmatched. Finally came the red letter day in the annals of the Jana Sangh when this utterly unassuming leader of the party was raised to the high position of President in the year 1968. On assuming this tremendous responsibility Deendayalji went to the South with the message of Jana Sangh. The following rousing call he gave to the thousands of delegates in the Calicut session, still rings in their ears:'

We are pledged to the service not of any particular community or section but of the entire nation. Every countryman is blood of our blood and flesh of our flesh. We shall not rest till we are able to give to every one of them a sense of pride that they are able to give to every one of them a sense of pride that they are children of Bharatmata. We shall make Mother India Sujala, Suphala (overflowing with water and laden with fruits) in the real sense of these words. As Dashapraharana Dharini Durga (Goddess Durga with her 10 weapons) she would be able to vanquish evil; as Lakshmi she would be able to disburse prosperity all over and as Saraswati she would dispel the gloom of ignorance and spread the radiance of knowledge all around her. With faith in ultimate victory, let us dedicate ourselves to this task.'

On the dark night of February 11, 1968, Deendayalji was fiendishly pushed into the jaws of sudden death and was found dead on at Mugal Sarai Railway yard.

The article is picked from 

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 24th August 2017

1.Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) formally accepted the Assamese unicode .Unicode is granted by International Standard Organisation on the application forwarded by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

2.Nepal Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba arrives in India to discuss various areas including trade and investment .

3.Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region granted 220 crores for development of a Medical College and Hospital in Nalbari which will be 11th medical college in Assam

4.Air India Chief Ashwani Lohani will replace AK Mittal as the Chairman of the Railway Board

5.England's soccer record goalscorer Wayne Rooney announces his retirement

6.Telecom Regulatory and Authority of India(TRAI) has signed an agreement with Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission to deepen bilateral cooperation in Telecom and Broadcasting

7.23rd August was celebrated as the International Day for the Remembrance of the slave trade and its abolition

8.Devendra Jhajharia(Para Athletic) and Sardar Singh will be honoured with Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award

9.Indian American Novelist Padma Vishwanathan has been awarded the 2017 'Porter Fund Literary Prize' for her novels 'The Toss of a Lemon' and ' The Ever After of Ashwin Rao'

10.NITI Aayog has launched Mentor India Campaign to promote innovation promotion platform with the help of ATAL Tinkering Labs for school students

Wednesday, 23 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 23rd August 2017

1.Swachhathon 1.0 which is organised by the Mission Directorate of Swachh Bharat Grameen (Assam) with the objective to source ideas for  some of the pressing problems related to Sanitation and hygiene in Assam

2. The Circuit House and the Hotel Brahmaputra Ashok will be merged together for a grand state  guest house cum Convention Centre.

3.Ajay Vipin Nanavati has been appointed as the Chairman of the Syndicate Bank.
About Syndicate Bank

  1. Established: 1925
  2. Headquarter:Manipal
  3. Tagline: Your Faithful and Friendly Financial Partner
  4. MD & CEO: Melwyn Rego

4.Home Minister Rajnath Singh inaugurated a digital police under the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and System(CCTN)which aims to provide a Nation wide Criminal Tracking.

5.Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) ADG Dharmendra Kumar has been appointed as the Director General of Railway Protection Force replacing Director General of CISF O.P Singh was in additional charge .

6.Anatoly Antonov appointed by Vladimir Putin as the new ambassador to USA

7.Mudit Nani won 3 medals ( one gold,one silver, one bronze) including a gold in 2017 EL Salvador Junior and Cadet Open. About EL Salvador: It is a small Central American Nation known for its Pacific ocean beaches

  1. Capital:San Salvador
  2. Currency:Dollar
  3. President: Salvador Sanchez Ceremony

8.ONGC Board gave it's approval to acquire government's 51.11percent stake in Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited(HPCL)
About ONGC

  1. Founded: 1956
  2. Chairman & MD : DK Sarraf
  3. Headquarter : Dehradun

About HPCL

  1. Founded:1974
  2. Headquarter: Mumbai

9.Navy has inducted a landing craft utility ship LCU L52  to its fleet which is designed and built by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers ( GRSE), Kolkata. It is commissioned by Lt. Governor of Andaman & Nicobar Islands Jagdish Mukhi. Admiral Sunil Lamba is the 23rd Chief of Navy

10.US based Uber has appointed Vishpala Reddy as the chief people officer for India and Southeast Asia operations
About Uber

  1. Founded:2009

11.Indian Council of Medical and Research (ICMR) has entered into an Agreement to collaborate on vaccine Research and Development with International Vaccine Institute ( IVI), South Korea
About ICMR

  1. Founded:1911
  2. Headquarter: New Delhi
  3. Secretary & Director General: Soumya Swaminathan

12. Union Minister of Human Resource Development Prakash Javedkar has launched 'Swasth Bachche, Swasth Bharat Programme'  in Kochi, Kerela

13.Australia  defeated Iran to win the FIBA Asian Basketball championship 2017 in Beirut, Lebanon. About FIBA( International Basketball Federation)

  1. Headquarter: Mies, Switzerland
  2. Formed:1932
  3. Secretary General: SG Patrick Bauman

14.South Korea and United States has began their Annual Military Excercise ' Ulchi Freedom Guardian'

15.Ram Kumar Ramanathan became India's number ONE player in Association of Tennis Professionals(ATP). His world ranking is 156
The list is topped by

  1. Rafael Nadal( Spain) 
  2. Andy Murray(UK)
  3. Roger Federer (Switzerland)

16. Sarbananda Sonowal Inaugurated mobile water purification and Packaging plant 'Prabah' in Dibrugarh

GST Expected GK Questions for Competitve Exams

1. How many types of taxes will be in Indian GST?
Answer: Central GST (CGST), State GST (SGST) and IGST are three types of taxes.

2. Country has the maximum GST tax slab?
Answer: India (28%)

3. Around how many countries adopted GST?
Answer: 160

4. Which country is the first one to implement GST?
Answer: France

5. How many countries have dual – GST model?
Answer: Canada, India

6. Rate structures of Indian GST Model?
Answer: They are 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%

7. The tax IGST charged by _____Government?
Answer: Central

8. In India GST was first proposed in _____?
Answer: 2000

9. The headquarters of GST council is _____?
Answer: New Delhi

10. Who is the chairman of GST council?
Answer: Arun Jaitley

11.  Who is the GST Finance Ministers Panel Chairman?
Answer: Amit Mishra

12. Which is the first state to ratify GST Bill?
Answer: Assam

13. First state that passed GST Bill?
Answer: Telangana

14. GST threshold limit of North Eastern States?
Answer: 10 Lakh

15. GST threshold limit of Normal States?
Answer: 20 Lakh

16. The Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) announced that every year _____ will be considered as GST Day?
Answer: July 1

17. GSTN comes under which Act?Answer: Companies Act, 201318. What does N stands for in HSN?
Answer: HSN - Harmonized System of Nomenclature

Tuesday, 22 August 2017


The government is working on a green urban mobility scheme for transportation in 103 cities that would promote use of hybrid /electric vehicles and non -fossil fuels ⛽️⛽️ among others for public transport.

  1. It would be implemented in 103 cities having more than 5 lakh population. 
  2. Scheme will be implemented in seven years mission mode. 
  3. Rs 70000 crore fund is required for the scheme. 
  4. 10 percent of the fund will be given by local bodies, 30 percent each by centre and states and the rest will be raised as a loan from multilateral agencies. 
  5. The scheme entails setting up of pedestrian pathways, cycling tracks, public bike sharing, bus rapid transit system and innovating financing for transport system and progressively shift to usage of electric /hybrid and non fossil fuels for public transport. 

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 22nd August 2017

1. Assam's Agriculture Minister Keshab Mahanta said that Assam will soon have state of Flood Monitoring and Flood Warning System

2.BK Khutiala Committee formed by University Grants Commission to study the proposal of granting deemed University status to Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC)

3.Microsoft Speech Recognition System achieved new milestone of 5.1 percent error rate, its lowest so far . This means for the first time the computer has been able to recognize the words as well as a  person could .

4.HCL Infosystems to distribute Apple products including iPhone  in the Indian Markets

5. Myanmar Government is taking initiative to preserve its  largest freshwater lake Idawgyi,which is also the 3rd largest freshwater lake of Southeast Asia

6.China will run the World's fastest bullet train from Beijing to Shanghai.The new generation Fuxing will cover a distance of 1250 kms in 4.5 hours at a speed of 350 km per hour

7.Grigor Dimitrov won the Cincinnati Open title (Tennis) by beating Australia's Nick Kyrgio

8. Wimbledon Champion Gabrine Muguraza won the Cincinnati Masters Open for Women. She defeated Simona Halep

9. Supreme Court of India declares Triple Talaq 'unconstitutional'. In a historic verdict, the Supreme Court on Tuesday struck down the Triple Talaq practice in a 3:2 judgment asked Union Government to bring legislation in 6 months. A five-judge bench pronounced the verdict. The five-judge constitution bench headed by Chief Justice J.S. Khehar, included Justice Kurian Joseph who is a Christian, Justice Rohinton Nariman who is a Parsi, Justice Uday Lalit who is a Hindu and Justice Abdul Nazeer, a Muslim.

Monday, 21 August 2017

Government Scheme: 4 digital initiatives to push e-education

President Pranab Mukherjee on the occasion of Guru Purnima launched four major digital initiatives in to push e-education. They are Swayam, Swayam Prabha, National Academic Depository and National Digital Library. All these digital initiatives are operational under Union Ministry of Human Resource and Development.

Key Facts

▪️Swayam: It an indigenously designed massive open online course (MOOC), It will host all the courses, taught in classrooms from 9th class till post-graduation and can be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time. It aims to bridge the digital divide for students in e-education.

▪️Swayam Prabha: It will provide high quality educational contents, developed by experts, through 32 DTH (direct to home) Television Channels with an aim to bring uniformity in standards of education. It will cover diverse disciplines of all levels of education in various languages. It will be available to all and will be having new content of 4 hours to be telecasted 6 times a day.

▪️National Academic Depository: It is a digital depository of academic awards for authenticating all certificates issued by institutions. NAD will directly integrate with Boards/Universities which issue Certificates which will be verified, authenticated, accessed and retrieved in a digital depository for purpose of employment, higher education, and loans.

▪️National Digital Library: It is a large online library containing 6.5 million books. It provides free access to many books in English and the Indian languages.

Goods and Service Tax: Its rates & Fraud Detection

Non registered businesses not allowed to charge GST

1) How to identify register or unregister dealer? 
Register dealer should print GST number on their bill.

2) How to identify if they printed Fake GST number? 
You can verify GST number in this link:

In case of GST Fraud, where should we file complaint? - Email : - Phone: 0120-4888999 , 011-23370115 - Twitter: @askGST_Goi , @FinMinIndia

3) What are the GST rates in India? 

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 21st August 2017

1.Assam Education Minister announce setting up of four Universities namely Bhattadev University at Bajali, Madhavdev University at Bihpuria, Rabindranath University at Hojai and Assam Cultural University at Majuli.

2.Assam State Agricultural Marketing Board(ASAMB) has decided to set up Mobile vans to supply vegetables at subsidised rates.

3.Rahul Doshi an Indian origin boy won the UK's ' Child Genius'  in a popular TV show 3.

4. Udaipur Boy Kalpit Veerwal who secured secured 100 percentage in the prestigious Joint Entrance Exam(Mains) has made it to the Limca Book of Records

5.Virender Nanvati has been appointed as the Vice Chairman of FINA's swimming Committee

6. Sapath Bharadwaj won  bronze at  Double Trap Junior Shotgun World Cup in Italy

7. Madhya Pradesh govt starts Mukhya Mantri #MedhaviVidyarthiYojana for meritorious students of economically weaker families.

Sunday, 20 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 20th August 2017

20th August : Today is Sadbhavana Diwas /Harmony Day

1.Jahnu Baruah , Prasoon Joshi and Nagesh Kukunoor are members of the steering committee for the International Film Festival constituted by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting

2.Uber Launches UberPool in Guwahati

3.Sri Lanka appoints Rear Admiral Travis Sinniah as the Navy Chief . He was appointed by the President of Sri Lanka Maithripala Sirisena

4.China opens first cyber court  specializing internet related cases in the E-commerce hub of Hangzhou.

5.Union Bank of India made agreements with Bajaj Allianz General Insurance and Cholamandalam MS General Insurance for distribution of their Insurance Products.

6.Neyamar became Goodwill Ambassador for Handicap International .

7.Mamta Suri takes charge as the Executive Director of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India(IBBI) in New Delhi.

8.Avani Moola Festival starts in Meenakshi temple, Madurai( Tamilnadu)

Saturday, 19 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 19th August 2017

1. Central Pollution Control Board has asked three states namely Assam, Meghalaya and Nagaland  to make a joint action plan to control Air Pollution .

2. Nalbari has been first open defecation free district of the state under Swaach Bharat Mission. The position of the state is 127 among 634 in terms of cleanliness

3. Atal Amrit Yojana begins in Silchar .

4. Vijay Sikka has quit as the CEO of Infosys

5.US based Assamese Sandy( Sanzib) Khaund featured in Forbes Magazine for his startup which want to use Blockchain to make events

6.US and Japan have decided to boost their multilateral security and defence co-operations with countries like India, South Korea and Australia amidst China's growing assertiveness in Asia Pacific Region

7.Virat Kohli topped the chart in the recent ICC One day international Rankings for batsmen. Australian David Warner is second.

8. The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate change has launched 'Harit Diwali' Swasth Diwali campaign

9.Five Indian Origin featured in ' Fortune' annual list of '40 under 40' young and influential people in the field of business inspiring others. They are Divya Nag, Rishi Shah, Shradha Agarwal, Leila Janah and Leo Varadkar(Irish Prime Minister). The list was topped by Emmanuel Macron ( President of France)

About Fortune
  • Founded- 1929 
  • Founder-Henry Luce
  • Headquarter-Newyork City, USA
9. Rajasthan government has signed an agreement with Hindustan Petroleum Corporation to set up a joint venture company for Petroleum Refinery cum Petrochemical Complex at Barmer, Rajasthan

10.Three Indians have made to 'MIT Technology Review Magazine Innovators under 35'. They are Neha Narkhede (Data Handling Systems) , Suchi Daria (Disease Diagnosis Algorithm), Radha Boya (Fluid  channel for water Filtration)

Free Book: 7300 + General Studies Questions (1997-2017)

This book is share for educational purpose only. Do not use it for commercial purpose in any form.

Prepared by: Gaurav Kumar Singh
Shared by: Rakesh Yadav Readers Publication

Click here to download the book

Assam Teacher Eligibility Test

Syllabus of Assam TET Part-1
General Studies:
Geography of India with Special emphasis on Assam
Secondary Education in India and Management of Schools
Economy of India with Special emphasis on Assam
Mental Ability and Reasoning
History and Culture of India with Special Emphasis on Assam History
Indian Political System and Constitution of India
General Science and Technology

Assam TET Exam Syllabus:

Current Affairs:
Scientific and Technological advancements, etc.
Art & Literature
Matters of State
National and International importance
Political and Economic developments

Syllabus of Assam TET Part-2

Educational Psychology
Psychology of Adolescence
Teaching –Learning Process and Pedagogy

General English:
Remedial Grammar

Assam TET Exam Syllabus and Exam Pattern :
There will be all Multiple Choice Questions in the Assam TET Exam 2016.
Each question will be of 1 Mark.
Students will get 4 options in which they all will need to select the correct one from them.
Good News is that there will be no negative Marking in the Assam TET Exam 2016.
Total of 200 questions in the Assam Teacher Eligibility Test 2016.
The main topics of the written exam are Gen Knowledge, General Studies, Current Affairs,

Pedagogy and General English.

General Knowledge for Assam TET Exam Question Paper

Friday, 18 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 18th August 2017

1. Sahitya Sabha will honour nine writers with 'Sabhapotir Satabarshiya Sahitya Samman' to
a. Dr Pranabjyoti Deka for his book Sarjageet and Buddhatantra.
b.Anubhav Tulasi for his poetry collection Barashunor khetiyok
c.Sibananda Kakati for his collection of stories, Barania Alibaat
d.Neelim Kumar for his Neelim kumaror Shrestha kobita
e.Manikuntala Bhattacharya for Bandha Ghoror Khirki
f.Pankaj Gobinda Medhi for his novel Sorai Suburi
g.Abdus Samad for Bon kukurar Daak
h. Maya Baruah( Jhankaar, translated version of Mitra Phukan's Monsoon of Music)
i.Shekhar Das( Koshagar , collection of Bengali stories)

Dr Dhurbajyoti Bora is the president of Assam Sahitya Sabha

2.Defence Ministry gave its nod for the procurement of six Apache Helicopters alongwith with weapons from American giant Boeing.

3.World Food India Roadshow held in Guwahati . Union Minister of state for Food Processing Industry Sadhvi Niranjan Jyoti was present on the occasion

4. Governor of Assam Banwarilal Purohit launches 'Affordable Health Mission' for appropriate healthcare service in the state

5.Manipur Civil Rights activist married Desmond Coutinho under special Marriage act

6.India is leading ahead on China in Retail Development Index

7.Bsnl Launches new mobile wallet alongwith Mobikwik

8.Sanjiv Gupta of General Motors is elevated to the designation of President and Managing Director of the company

9.HDFC bank launches HDFC ISIC student Forex Plus Card for the students travelling abroad for studies.

10.Minister of State for External Affairs M.J.Akbar kicks off 'Namaskar Africa 2017' which is a India - West trade and exhibition forum in Ghana

11. Real Madrid defeated Barcelona in the second leg of the Spanish Super Cup at Santiago Barnabeu in Madrid

12. Shuttler Lakshya Sen won the Bulagaria Open International Series title against Croatia's Zvonimir Durkinjak

13. Guwahati and Ahmedabad join Vodafone Premier Badminton league. The Guwahati will be known as ' Guwahati Eastern Warriors ' and the Ahmedabad team will be known as ' Ahmedabad Smash Masters' .

14.Sahil Mahmood takes charge as Pakistan's High Commissioner to India

15.India and Sweden signed Mou on Intellectual Property Rights(IPR)

16.India won 37 Medals at World Dwarf Games, Canada. Joby Matthew from India topped the list with 6 medals to his name

17.Emma Stone topped the 'Forbes' list of most paid actress( 26 million dollar)

18.Rahul Gandhi inaugurated Indira Canteen in Bengaluru, Karnataka to serve  food to poor at subsidised rates

19.NABARD conferred the best performance award 2015-2016 and 2016- 2017 to Karnataka Vikash Grameen  Bank ( KVGB) for its work in the field of Credit linking Liability Groups .

Thursday, 17 August 2017

Daily current affairs for Assam Public Service Commission (APSC) Exams - 17th August 2017

1. Central Pollution Control Board is concerned about the raising air pollution in five cities and towns of Assam namely Guwahati, Nagaon, Nalbari, Silchar and Sibsagar

2.US Marine Corps and  Japan's ground self defence force conducted their joint exercise named Northern Viper 17 at Hokudaien exercise area in Eniwa northern Hokkaido island , Japan.

3.Videocon has appointed Rajesh Rathi as its business head.

4. Australian city Melbourne is named as the world's most liveable city by The Economist Intelligence Unit's Global liveability report 2017

5.India will hold next steering level meeting of TAPI gas Pipeline

6.Italy to host next G7 interior Minister security Summit

7.World's biggest single tower solar thermal power panel to be built in Port August, South Australia

8.China and Nepal signed three pacts in the field of Power, Energy and Economy

9.Santosh Sharma has been appointed as the Chairman and Managing Director of Hindustan Copper Limited

Wednesday, 16 August 2017

1-Who founded the Barpeta Satra?
Ans-Sri Sri Madhabdeva.

2-Who planned a bridge over Brahmaputra during Ahom age?
Ans-Ahom General Kolia Bhomora Barphukan.

3-What is Dark Age of Assamese language?
Ans- 37 (1836 to 1873)

4-Which Ahom King was known as Bhaga Raja?
Ans-Swargadeo Jayaditya Singha or Suramphaa.

5-What is Apong?
Ans- Rice beer.

6-What is Deodhani Nritya?
Ans- Traditional dance of Assam.

7-What is Ojapali?
Ans- An unique traditional folk dance.

8-What is Mising Autonomous Council?
Ans-(MAC) is an autonomous administrative division in the state of Assam.

9- What is Ali-Ai-Ligang?
Ans –Spring-time seed sowing festival celebrated by Mising tribe of Assam.

10- What is Naam Ghosa?
Ans- Vaishnavite scripture written by Mahapurush Madhavdeva in Sixteenth century.

11- What is BTAD?
Ans- Bodoland Territorial Area Districts (BTAD).

12- Name of the first Bodo language book?
Ans- Boroni Fisa O Ayen (Son of the Boros and its Customary Laws) was the first printed book in Bodo language.

13- What is BTC?
Ans- Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC). and BTC is an Autonomous self governing body within the State of Assam.

14-What is ASRLMS?
Ans- Assam State Rural Livelihoods Mission Society (ASRLMS).

15- Name of the First Bodo Language Magazine?
Ans-Bibar was the first Bodo language magazine, Published in 1924.

16-Who is known as Rasaraj in Assam?
Ans- Lakshminath Bezbaroa

17- What is a Bhatima?
Ans- song sung by roving minstrels in praise of God or the guru.

18-What is the name of the longest State Highway in Assam?
Ans- Dhodar Ali. At 210.10 km.

19- What is the name of the only Hill Station in Assam?
Ans-  Haflong is the only hill station in Assam state of India.

20-Who shifted the Capital of Ahom Kingdom to Rangpur?
Ans- Swargadeo Rudra Singha.
21- Assam Basic Education Act was enacted in which year?
Ans- Assam Basic Education Act in year 1954.

22- What is a Borgeet?
Ans-A Borgeet is a vaishnava devotional song, popular in Assam.

23-Who is known as Potharor Kobi in Assam?
Ans- Ram Gogoi is known as Potathor Kobi. The title Potharor Kobi means “Poet of the Field”.

24-First Assamese Justice in Supreme Court of India?
Ans- Mr. Parbati Kumar Goswami served as a judge in Supreme Court of India.

25-Who is known as Kalaguru in Assam?
Ans- “Bishnu Prasad Rabha” is popularly known as Kolaguru or Kala Guru (meaning teacher of arts).

26-Who was the first recipient of Assam Valley Literary Award?
Ans- Dr. Bhabendra Nath Saikia.

27-Number of Agro-Climatic Zones in Assam?
Ans- There are six (6) agro-climatic zones in Assam state of India.

28-Which district of Assam has highest population density?
Ans-Kamrup Metropolitan district has highest population density in Assam.

29-In which year British separated Assam from Bengal?
Ans- In 1874, British separated Assam from Bengal and formed a new Chief Commissioner’s province.

30-Name of the First Tea Company in Assam
Ans-Assam Company was the first Tea company in Assam.

31. Is Assam situated on the ….region of India?

32. The state Assam shares international borders with ………and ……….countries.
Ans-Bhutan, Bangladesh

33.  …….often referred as “Gateway of North Eastern Region” of the country?

34.  Which are two World Heritage Sites in Assam?
Ans- Kaziranga, Manas

35. ….river flows in Asssam.
Ans- Bramhaputra

36. Oil India Company  Ltd has its plant and headquarters at……… the state.
Ans- Duliajan

37. The …….. is an important festival of Assam.
Ans-  Rongali Bihu

38. … the folk dance of Assam.
Ans- Bihu

39. ……. is a major harvest festival of the Dimasa people.
Ans- Bushu

40. When was the state established?
Ans- 1912

41. Which is  the popular seasonal festival of the Bodos?

42. Which state is to the north of Assam?
Answer: Arunachal Pradesh

43. Which country is to the west of Assam?
Answer: Bangladesh

44.. When did the British annex Assam?
Answer: 1826

45. Which district was separated from Assam and given to Pakistan in 1947?
Answer: Sylhet

46. Which state was separated from Assam in 1963?

Answer: Nagaland

47. When was Mizoram separated from Assam?
Answer: 1972

48. Which is the capital of Assam?
Answer: Dispur

49. Which is the highest point in Assam?
Answer: Chenghehishon

50. Which party came to power in Assam in 1985?
Answer: Asom Gana Parishad

51. How was Assam formerly known?

Answer: Kamarupa

52.How much is the area of Assam State
Ans– 78,438 Sq Km.

53. How many times did Mahatma Gandhi visit Assam?
Ans- 4 (four) times.

54. When did Assam host Indian National Congress Session the first time?
Ans- 41st session, in 1926.

55. Name of the First Political Association of Assam?
Ans- Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha.

56. Who established the Koch Dynasty?
Ans-Vishwa Singha

57. Who built the Dhodar Ali in Assam?
Ans- Gadadhar Singha.

58.What was the Capital of Pala Dynasty in Assam?
Ans- Durjaya

59.What was the Capital of Varman Dynasty?
Ans- Pragjyotishpur.

60. In which year Assam hosted National Games?

61.Name of the first Sugar Mill in Assam?
Ans- The Assam Co-operative Sugar Mills Limited.

62-Which district of Assam has the longest International Border?
Ans- Dhubri.

63- Total length of India-Bangladesh border in the Assam state of India is_?

64-Who built the Umananda temple?
Ans-Ahom King Swargadeo Gadadhar Singha.

65- What is the State Aquatic Animal of Assam?
Ans- Gangetic River Dolphin or Sisu.

66-Who was the First Assamese Bharat Ratna?
Ans- Gopinath Bordoloi.

67-Who was the First Assamese President of India?
Ans- Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.

68-What is the number of Lok Sabha seats from Assam?
Ans-  14

69-Who was the First Female Padma Shri award winner from Assam?
Ans- Nalinibala Devi.

70-Who was the First Female Graduate of Assam?
Ans-Sudhalata Dowarah and Sukhalata Dowarah.

71. When did Oil Drilling started in Assam?

72. What was First Assamese Social Play?
Ans-Ram Navami.

73.What was the First Assamese Historical Novel?
Ans- Padum Konwari.

74. Who was the writer of First Assamese Historical Novel?
Ans- Lakshminath Bezbarua.

75. Who was the Second Arjun Award winner from Assam?
Ans- Monalisa Barua or Monalisa Baruah Mehta.

76. What is the current Population of Assam?
Ans- According to 2011 Indian Census data’31,169,272′.

77. Who was the First Arjun Award Winner from Assam?
Ans-Bhogeswar Barua.

78. Name of the First Assamese Color Film?
Ans- Bhaity.

79.Who was the First President of Assam Sahitya Sabha?
Ans- Asam Sahitya Sabha.

80. What was the First Magazine in Assamese?
Ans-Orunodoi or Aroonudai.

GLOSSARY - Marketing Aptitude Test


activity-based cost (ABC) accounting procedures that can quantify the true profitability of different activities by identifying their actual costs.
advertising any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.
advertorials print ads that offer editorial content that reflects favourably on the brand and are resemble newspaper or magazine content.
anchoring and adjustment heuristic when consumers arrive at an initial judgment and then make adjustments of their first impressions based on additional information.
arm’s-length price the price charged by other competitors for the same or a similar product.
aspirational groups groups a person hopes or would like to join.
associative network memory model a conceptual representation that views memory as consisting of a set of nodes and interconnecting links where nodes represent stored information or concepts and links represent the strength of association between this information or concepts.
attitude a person’s enduring favourable or unfavourable evaluation, emotional feeling, and action tendencies toward some object or idea.
augmented product a product that includes features that go beyond consumer expectations and differentiate the product from competitors.
available market the set of consumers who have interest, income, and access to a particular offer.
availability heuristic when consumers base their predictions on the quickness and ease with which a particular example of an outcome comes to mind.
average cost the cost per unit at a given level of production; it is equal to total costs divided by production.


backward invention reintroducing earlier product forms that can be well adapted to a foreign country’s needs.
banner ads (Internet) small, rectangular boxes containing text and perhaps a picture to support a brand.
basic product what specifically the actual product is.
belief a descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
brand a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.
brand associations all brand-related thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand node.
brand audit a consumer-focused exercise that involves a series of procedures to assess the health of the brand, uncover its sources of brand equity, and suggest ways to improve and leverage its equity.
brand awareness consumers’ ability to identify the brand under different conditions, as reflected by their brand recognition or recall performance.
brand contact any information-bearing experience a customer or prospect has with the brand, the product category, or the market that relates to the marketer’s product or service.
brand development index (BDI) the index of brand sales to category sales.
brand dilution when consumers no longer associate a brand with a specific product or highly similar products or start thinking less favourably about the brand.
brand elements those trademarkable devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand such as a brand name, logo, or character.
brand equity the added value endowed to products and services.
brand extension a company’s use of an established brand to introduce a new product.
brand image the perceptions and beliefs held by consumers, as reflected in the associations held in consumer memory.
brand knowledge all the thoughts, feelings, images:, experiences, beliefs, and so on that become associated with the brand.
brand line all products, original as well as line and category extensions, sold under a particular brand name.
brand mix the set of all brand lines that a particular seller makes available to buyers.
brand personality the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand.
brand portfolio the set of all brands and brand lines a particular firm offers for sale to buyers in a particular category.
brand promise the marketer’s vision of what the brand must be and do for consumers.
brand valuation an estimate of the total financial value of the brand.
brand value chain a structured approach to assessing the sources and outcomes of brand equity and the manner in which marketing activities create brand value.
branded entertainment using sports, music, arts, or other entertainment activities to build brand equity.
branded variants specific brand lines uniquely supplied to different retailers or distribution channels.
branding endowing products and services with the power of a brand.
branding strategy the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements applied to the different products sold by the firm.
breakeven analysis a means by which management estimates how many units of the product the company would have to sell to break even with the given price and cost structure.
brick-and-click existing companies that have added an online site for information and/or e-commerce.
business database complete information about business customers’ past purchases; past volumes, prices, and profits.
business market all the organizations that acquire goods and services used in the production of other products or services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others.


capital items long-lasting goods that facilitate developing or managing the finished product.
captive products products that are necessary to the use of other products, such as razor blades or film.
category extension Using the parent brand to brand a new product outside the product category currently served by the parent brand.
category membership the products or sets of products with which a brand competes and which function as close substitutes.
cause-related marketing marketing that links a firm’s contributions to a designated cause to customers’ engaging directly or indirectly in revenue-producing transactions with the firm.
channel advantage when a company successfully switches its customers to lower- cost channels, while assuming no loss of sales or deterioration in service quality.
channel conflict when one channel member’s actions prevent the channel from achieving its goal.
channel coordination when channel members are brought together to advance the goals of the channel, as opposed to their own potentially incompatible goals.
channel power the ability to alter channel members’ behaviour so that they take actions they would not have taken otherwise.
communication adaptation changing marketing communications programs for each local market.
communication-effect research determining whether an ad is communicating eiffectively.
company demand the company’s estimated share of market demand at alternative levels of company marketing effort in a given time period.
company sales forecast the expected level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan and an assumed marketing environment.
competitive advantage a company’s ability to perform in one or more ways that competitors cannot or will not match.
conformance quality the degree to which all the produced units are identical and meet the promised specifications.
conjoint analysis a method for deriving the utility values that consumers attach to varying levels of a product’s attributes.
conjunctive heuristic the consumer sets a minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute and chooses the first alternative that meets the minimum standard for all attributes.
consumer involvement the level of engagement and active processing undertaken by the consumer in responding to a marketing stimulus.
consumerist movement an organized movement of citizens and government to strengthen the rights and powers of buyers in relation to sellers.
consumption system the way the user performs the tasks of getting and using products and related services.
containerization putting the goods in boxes or trailers that are easy to transfer between two transportation modes.
content-target advertising links ads not to keywords but to the contents of Web pages.
contractual sales force manufacturers’ reps, sales agents, and brokers, who are paid a commission based on sales.
convenience goods goods the consumer purchases frequently, immediately, and with a minimum of effort.
conventional marketing channel an independent producer, wholesaler(s), and retailer(s).
core benefit the service or benefit the customer is really buying.
core competency attribute that (1) is a source of competitive advantage in that it makes a significant contribution to perceived customer benefits, (2) has applications in a wide variety of markets, (3) is difficult for competitors to imitate.
core values the belief systems that underlie consumer attitudes and behaviour, and that determine people’s choices and desires over the long term.
corporate culture the shared experiences, stories, beliefs, and norms that characterize an organization.
corporate retailing corporately owned retailing outlets that achieve economies of scale, greater purchasing power, wider brand recognition, and better-trained employees.
cues stimuli that determine when, where, and how a person responds.
culture the fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behaviour.
customer-based brand equity the differential effect that brand knowledge has on a consumer response to the marketing of that brand.
customer churn high customer defection.
customer consulting data, information systems, and advice services that the seller offers to buyers.
customer database an organized collection of comprehensive information about individual customers or prospects that is current, accessible, and actionable for marketing purposes.
customer lifetime value (CLV) the net present value of the stream of future profits expected over the customer’s lifetime purchases.
customer mailing list a set of names, addresses, and telephone numbers.
customer perceived value(CPV) the difference between the prospective customer’s evaluation of all the benefits and all the costs of an offering and the perceived alternatives.
customer-performance scorecard how well the company is doing year after  year on particular  customer-based measures.


customer profitability analysis (CPA) a means of assessing and ranking customer
profitability through accounting techniques such as Activity-Based Costing (ABC).
customer training training the customer’s employees to use the vendor’s equipment properly and efficiently.
customer value analysis report of the company’s strengths and weaknesses relative to various competitors.
customer value hierarchy five product levels that must be addressed by marketers in planning a market offering.
customerization combination of operationally driven mass customization with customized marketing in a way that empowers consumers to design the product and service offering of their choice.


data warehouse a collection of current data captured, organized, and stored in a company’s contact centre.
database marketing the process of building, maintaining, and using customer databases and other databases for the purpose of contacting, transacting, and building customer relationships.
datamining the extracting of useful information about individuals, trends, and segments from the mass of data.
delivery how well the product or service is delivered to the customer.
demand chain planning the process of designing the supply chain based on adopting a target market perspective and working backward.
direct marketing the use of consumer-direct (CD) channels to reach and deliver goods and services to customers without using marketing middlemen.
direct-order marketing in which direct marketers seek a measurable response, typically a customer order.
direct product profitability (DPP) a way of measuring a product’s handling costs from the time it reaches the warehouse until a customer buys it in the retail store.
direct (company) sales force full-or part-time paid employees who work exclusively for the company.
discrimination the process of recognizing differences in sets of similar stimuli and adjusting responses accordingly.
dissociative groups those groups whose values or behaviour an individual rejects.
distribution programming building a planned, professionally managed, vertical marketing system that meets the needs of both manufacturer and distributors.
drive a strong internal stimulus impelling action.
dual adaptation adapting both the product and the communications to the local market.
dumping situation in which a company charges either less than its costs or less than it charges in its home market, in order to enter or win a market.
durability a measure of a product’s expected operating life under natural or stressful conditions.


e-business the use of electronic means and platforms to conduct a company’s business.
e-commerce a company or site offers to transact or facilitate the selling of products and services online.
e-marketing company efforts to inform buyers, communicate, promote, and sell its products and services over the Internet.
e-purchasing purchase of goods, services, and information from various online suppliers.
elimination-by-aspects heuristic situation in which the consumer compares brands on an attribute selected probabilistically, and brands are eliminated if they do not meet minimum acceptable cutoff levels.
environmental threat a challenge posed by an unfavourable trend or development that would lead to lower sales or profit.
everyday low pricing (EDLP) in retailing, a constant low price with few or no price promotions and special sales.
exchange the process of obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return.
exclusive distribution severely limiting the number of intermediaries, in order to maintain control over the service level and outputs offered by resellers.
expectancy-value model consumers evaluate products and services by combining their brand beliefs—positive and negative— according to their weighted importance.
expected product a set of attributes and conditions buyers normally expect when they purchase this product.
experience curve (learning curve) a decline in the average cost with accumulated production experience.


fad a craze that is unpredictable, short-lived, and without social, economic and political significance.
family brand situation in which the parent brand is already associated with multiple products through brand extensions.
family of orientation parents and siblings.
family of procreation spouse and children.
features things that enhance the basic function of a product.
fixed costs (overhead) costs that do not vary with production or sales revenue.
flexible market offering (1) a naked solution containing the product and service elements that all segment members value, and (2) discretionary options that some segment members value.
focus group a gathering of six to ten people who are carefully selected based on certain demographic, psychographic, or other considerations and brought together to discuss various topics of interest.
forecasting the art of anticipating what buyers are likely to do under a given set of conditions.
form the size, shape, or physical structure of a product.
forward invention creating a new product to meet a need in another country.
frequency programs (FPs) designed to provide rewards to customers who buy frequently and in substantial amounts.


global firm a  firm that  operates in  more  than  one country  and  captures R&D,
production, logistical, marketing, and financial advantages in its costs and reputation that are not available to purely domestic competitors.
global industry an industry in which the strategic positions of competitors in major geographic or national markets are fundamentally affected by their overall global positions.
goal formulation the process of developing specific goals for the planning period.
going-rate pricing price based largely on competitors’ prices.
gray market branded products diverted from normal or authorized distributions channels in the country of product origin or across international borders.


heuristics rules of thumb or mental shortcuts in the decision process.
high-low pricing charging higher prices on an everyday basis but then running frequent promotions and special sales.
holistic marketing a concept based on the development, design, and implementation of marketing programs, processes, and activities that recognizes their breadth and interdependencies.
horizontal marketing system two or more unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging market opportunity.
hybrid channels use of multiple channels of distribution to reach customers in a defined market.


image the set of beliefs, ideas, and impressions a person holds regarding an object.
industry a group of firms that offer a product or class of products that are close substitutes for one another.
ingredient branding a special case of co-branding that involves creating brand equity for materials, components, or parts that are necessarily contained within other branded products.
innovation any good, service, or idea that is perceived by someone as new.
innovation diffusion process the spread of a new idea from its source of invention or creation to its ultimate users or adopters.
installation the work done to make a product operational in its planned location.
institutional market schools, hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, and other institutions that must provide goods and services to people in their care.
integrated logistics systems (ILS) materials management, material flow systems, and physical distribution, abetted by information technology (IT).
integrated marketing mixing and matching marketing activities to maximize their individual and collective efforts.
integrated marketing communications (IMC) a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan.
intensive distribution the manufacturer placing the goods or services in as many outlets as possible.
internal branding activities and processes that help to inform and inspire employees.
interstitials advertisements, often with video or animation, that pop up between changes on a Web site.


joint venture a company in which multiple investors share ownership and control.


learning changes in an individual’s behaviour arising from experience.
lexicographic heuristic consumer choosing the best brand on the basis of its perceived most important attribute.
licensed product one whose brand name has been licensed to other manufacturers who actually make the product.
life-cycle cost the product’s purchase cost plus the discounted cost of maintenance and repair less the discounted salvage value.
lifestyle a person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities, interests, and opinions.
line extension the parent brand is used to brand a new product that targets a new market segment within a product category currently served by the parent brand.
line stretching a company lengthens its product line beyond its current range.
long-term memory (LTM) a permanent repository of information.
loyalty a commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product or service.


maintenance and repair the service program for helping customers keep purchased products in good working order.
market-buildup method identifying all the potential buyers in each market and estimating their potential purchases.
market demand the total volume of a product that would be bought by a defined customer group in a defined geographical area in a defined time period in a defined marketing environment under a defined marketing program.
market forecast the market demand corresponding to the level of industry marketing expenditure.
market logistics planning the infrastructure to meet demand, then implementing and controlling the physical flows or materials and final goods from points of origin to points of use, to meet customer requirements at a profit.
market opportunity analysis (MOA) system used to determine the attractiveness and probability of success.
market partitioning the process of investigating the hierarchy of attributes consumers examine in choosing a brand if they use phased decision strategies.
market penetration index a comparison of the current level of market demand to the potential demand level.
market-penetration pricing pricing strategy where prices start low to drive higher sales volume from price-sensitive customers and produce productivity gains.
market potential the upper limit to market demand whereby increased marketing
expenditures would not be expected to stimulate fuDrther demand.
market-skimming pricing pricing strategy where prices start high and are slowly
lowered over time to maximize profits from less price-sensitive customers.
marketer someone who seeks a response (attention, a purchase, a vote, a donation) from another party, called the prospect.
marketing process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.
marketing audit a comprehensive, systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a company’s or business unit’s marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities.
marketing channel system the particular set of marketing channels employed by a firm.
marketing channels sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption.
marketing communications the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers—directly or indirectly— about products and brands that they sell.
marketing communications mix advertising, sales promotion, events and experiences, public relations and publicity, direct marketing, and personal selling.
marketing decision support system (MDSS) a coordinated collection of data, systems, tools, and techniques with supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information from business and the environment and turns it into a basis for marketing action.
marketing implementation the process that turns marketing plans into action assignments and ensures that such assignments are executed in a manner that accomplishes the plan’s stated objectives.
marketing information system (MIS) people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute information to marketing decision makers.
marketing intelligence system a set of procedures and sources managers use to obtain everyday information about developments in the marketing environment.
marketing management the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value.
marketing metrics the set of measures that helps firms to quantify, compare, and interpret their marketing performance.
marketing network the company and its supporting stakeholders, with whom it has built mutually profitable business relationships.
marketing opportunity an area of buyer need and interest in which there is a high probability that a company can profitably satisfy that need.
marketing plan written document that summarizes what the marketer has learned about the marketplace, indicates how the firm plans to reach its marketing objectives, and helps direct and coordinate the marketing effort.
marketing public relations (MPR) publicity and other activities that build corporate or product image to facilitate marketing goals.
marketing research the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company.
markup pricing an item by adding a standard increase to the product’s cost.
materials and parts goods that enter the manufacturer’s product completely.
media selection finding the most cost-effective media to deliver the desired number and type of exposures to the target audience.
megamarketing the strategic coordination of economic, psychological, political, and public relations skills, to giain the cooperation of a number of parties in order to enter or operate in a given market.
megatrends large social, economic, political, and technological changes that are slow to form, and once in place, have an influence for seven to ten years or longer.
membership groups groups having a direct influence on a person. memory encoding
how and where information gets into memory.
memory retrieval how and from where information gets out of memory.
mental accounting the manner by which consumers code, categorize, and evaluate financial outcomes of choices.
microsales analysis examination of specific products and territories that fail to produce expected sales.
microsite a limited area on the Web managed and paid for by an external advertiser/ company.
mission statements statements that organizations develop to share with managers, employees, and (in many cases) customers.
mixed bundling the seller offers goods both individually and in bundles.
multichannel marketing a single firm uses two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments.
multitasking doing two or more things at the same time.


net price analysis analysis that encompasses company list price, average discount, promotional spending, and co-op advertising to arrive at net price.
noncompensatory models in consumer choice, when consumers do not simultaneously consider all positive and negative attribute considerations in making a decision.


Online alliances and affiliate programs when one Internet company works with another one and they advertise each other.
opinion leader the person in informal, product-related communications who offers advice or information about a specific product or product category.
ordering ease how easy it is for the customer to place an order with the company.
organization a company’s structures, policies, and corporate culture.
organizational buying the decision-making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers.
overall market share the company’s sales expressed as a percentage of total market sales.


parent brand an existing brand that gives birth to a brand extension.
partner relationship management (PRM) activities the firm undertakes to build mutually satisfying long-term relations with key partners such as suppliers, distributors, ad agencies, and marketing research suppliers.
penetrated market the set of consumers who are buying a company’s product.
perceived value the value promised by the company’s value proposition and perceived by the customer.
perception the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world.
performance quality the level at which the product’s primary characteristics operate.
personal communications channels two or more persons communicating directly face-to-face, person-to-audience, over the telephone, or through e-mail.
personal influence the effect one person has on another’s attitude or purchase probability.
personality a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively consistent responses to environmental stimuli.
place advertising (also out-of-home advertising) ads that appear outside of home and where consumers work and play.
point-or-purchase (P-O-P) the location where a purchase is made, typically thought of in terms of a retail setting.
potential market the set of consumers who profess a sufficient level of interest in a market offer.
potential product all the possible augmentations and transformations the product or offering might undergo in the future.
price discrimination a company sells a product or service at two or more prices that do not reflect a proportional difference in costs.
price escalation an increase in the price of a product due to added costs of selling it in different countries.
primary groups groups with which a person interacts continuously and informally, such as family, friends, neighbours, and co-workers.
principle of congruity psychological mechanism that states that consumers like to see seemingly related objects as being as similar as possible in their favourability.
private label brand brands that retailers and wholesalers develop and market.
product adaptation altering the product to meet local conditions or preferences.
product assortment the set of all products and items a particular seller offers for sale.
product invention creating something new via product development or other means.
product mix see product assortment.
product penetration percentage the percentage of ownership or use of a product or service in a population.
product system a group of diverse but related items that function in a compatible manner.
profitable customer a person, household, or company that over time yields a revenue stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount the company’s cost stream of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer.
prospect theory when consumers frame decision alternatives in terms of gains and losses according to a value function.
 public any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s
ability to achieve its objectives.
public relations (PR) a variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company’s image or its individual products.
publicity the task of securing editorial space—as opposed to paid space—in print and broadcast media to promote something.
pull strategy when the manufacturer uses advertising and promotion to persuade consumers to ask intermediaries for the product, thus inducing the intermediaries to order it.
purchase probability scale a scale to measure the probability of a buyer making a particular purchase.
pure bundling a firm only offers its products as a bundle.
pure-click companies that have launched a Web site without any previous existence as a firm.
push strategy when the manufacturer uses its sales force and trade promotion money to induce intermediaries to carry, promote, and sell the product to end users.


reference groups all the groups that have a direct or indirect influence on a person’s attitudes or behaviour.
reference prices pricing information a consumer retains in memory which is used to interpret and evaluate a new price.
relational equity the cumulative value of the firm’s network of relationships with its customers, partners, suppliers, employees, and investors.
relationship marketing building mutually satisfying long-term relationships with key parties, in order to earn and retain their business.
relative market share market share in relation to a company’s largest competitor.
reliability a measure of the probability that a product will not malfunction or fail within a specified time period.
repairability a measure of the ease of fixing a product when it malfunctions or fails.
representativeness heuristic when consumers base their predictions on how representative or similar an outcome is to other examples.
risk analysis a method by which possible rates of returns and their probabilities are calculated by obtaining estimates for uncertain variables affecting profitability.
role the activities a person is expected to perform.


sales analysis measuring and evaluating actual sales in relation to goals.
sales budget a conservative estimate of the expected volume of sales, used for making current purchasing, production, and cash flow decisions.
sales promotion a collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade.
sales quota  the sales  goal  set for  a  product  line,  company  division, or sales representative.
sales-variance analysis a measure of the relative contribution of different factors to a gap in sales performance.
satisfaction a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance or outcome in relation to his or her expectations.
scenario analysis developing plausible representations of a firm’s possible future that make different assumptions about forces driving the market and include different uncertainties.
search-related ads ads in which search terms are used as a proxy for the consumer’s consumption interests and relevant links to product or service offerings are listed along side the search results.
secondary groups groups which tend to be more formal and require less interaction than primary groups, such as religious, professional, and trade-union groups.
selective attention the mental process of screening out certain stimuli while noticing others.
selective distortion the tendency to interpret product information in a way that fit consumer perceptions.
selective distribution the use of more than a few but less than all of the intermediaries who are willing to carry a particular product.
selective retention good points about a product that consumers like are remembered and good points about competing products are forgotten.
served market all the buyers who are able and willing to buy a company’s product.
served market share a company’s sales expressed as a percentage of the total sales to its served market.
service any act or performance that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything.
share penetration index a comparison of a company’s current market share to its potential market share.
shopping goods goods that the consumer, in the process of selection and purchase, characteristically compares on such bases as suitability, quality, price, and style.
short-term memory (STM) a temporary repository of information.
social classes homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviour.
social marketing marketing done by a nonprofit or government organization to further a cause, such as “say no to drugs.”
specialty goods goods that have unique characteristics or brand identification for which a sufficient number of buyers are willing to make a special purchasing effort.
sponsorship financial support of an event or activity in return for recognition and acknowledgment as the sponsor.
stakeholder-performance scorecard a measure to track the satisfaction of various constituencies who have a critical interest in and impact on the company’ s performance.
status one’s position within his or her own hierarchy or culture.
straight extension introducing a product in a foreign market without any change in the product.
strategic brand management the design and implementation of marketing activities and programs to build, measure, and manage brands to maximize their value.
strategic business units (SBUs) a single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned separately from the rest of the company, with its own set of competitors and a manager who is responsible for strategic planning and profit performance.
strategic group firms pursuing the same strategy directed to the same target market.
strategic marketing plan laying out the target markets and the value proposition that will be offered, based on analysis of the best market opportunities.
strategy a company’s game plan for achieving its goals. style a product’s look and feel to the buyer.
sub-brand a new brand combined with an existing brand.
subculture subdivisions of a culture that provide more specific identification and socialization, such as nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographical regions.
subliminal perception receiving and processing subconscious messages that affect behaviour.
supersegment a set of segments sharing some exploitable similarity.
supplies and business services short-term goods and services that facilitate developing or managing the finished product.
supply chain management (SCM) procuring the right inputs (raw materials, components, and capital equipment); converting them efficiently into finished products; and dispatching them to the final destinations.


tactical marketing plan marketing tactics, including product features, promotion, merchandising, pricing, sales channels, and service.
target costing deducting the desired profit margin from the price at which a product will sell, given its appeal and competitors’ prices.
target market the part of the qualified available market the company decides to pursue.
target-return pricing determining the price that would yield the firm’s target rate of return on investment (ROI).
telemarketing the use of telephone and call centres to attract prospects, sell to existing, customers, and provide service by taking orders and answering questions.
total costs the sum of the fixed and variable costs for any given level of production.
total customer cost the bundle of costs customers expect to incur in evaluating, obtaining, using, and disposing of the given market offering, including monetary, time, energy, and psychic costs.
total customer value the perceived monetary value of the bundle of economic, functional, and psychological benefits customers expect from a given market offering.
total quality management (TQM) an organizationwide approach to continuously improving the quality of all the organization’s processes, products, and services.
tracking studies collecting information from consumers on a routine basis over time.
transaction a trade of  values between  two or  more parties: A gives X  to B   and receives  in return.
transfer in the case of gifts, subsidies, and charitable contributions: A gives X to B
but does not receive anything tangible in return.
transfer price the price a company charges another unit in the company for goods it ships to foreign subsidiaries.
trend a direction or sequence of events that has some momentum and durability.
two-part pricing a fixed fee plus a variable usage fee.
tying agreements agreement in which producers of strong brands sell their products to dealers only if dealers purchase related products or services, such as other products in the brand line.


unsought goods those the consumer does not know about or does not normally think of buying, like smoke detectors.


value-delivery network a company’s supply chain and how it partners with specific suppliers and distributors to make products and bring them to markets.
value-delivery system all the expectancies the customer will have on the way to obtaining and using the offering.
value network a system of partnerships and alliances that a firm creates to source, augment, and deliver its offerings.
value pricing winning loyal customers by charging a fairly low price for a high- quality offering.
value proposition the whole cluster of benefits the company promises to deliver.
variable costs costs that vary directly with the level of production.
venture team a cross-functional group charged with developing a specific product or business.
vertical integration situation in which manufacturers try to control or own their suppliers, distributors, or other intermediaries
vertical marketing system (VMS) producer, wholesaler(s), and retailer(s) acting as a unified system.
viral marketing using the Internet to create word of mouth effects to support marketing efforts and goals.


yield pricing situation in which companies offer (1) discounted but limited early purchases, (2) higher-priced late purchases, and (3) the lowest rates on unsold inventory just before it expires.


zero-level channel (direct-marketing ch